Gemstone Cuts and The Why.

Who does the cutting? What are the different methods of cutting? Ever thought why it is cut that way?
What is a cabochon?  Why a Marquise?  isn’t that a Royal title such as Baron or Earl? ( Actually it is a royal title that is lower than a Duke but higher than an Earl, if you are into Royalty.)

After delving into the history of gemstone cutting I have found some interesting answers.
A gem cutter is called a “Lapidarist” This trade is usually learned on the job, but there are several colleges that do give courses.  How long it takes to learn, depends on the skill of the student.

The different methods of cutting are tumbling, cabbing, faceting and carving.

Tumbling, the simplest method, is done in a revolving barrel with abrasives. Finer and finer abrasives are used until the stones have the expected high sheen. This is closest to nature as the same thing happens to stones in a stream. Of course, man made tumbling creates a much higher polish.

Rock Tumbler

Rock Tumbler

Cabbing is the cutting of cabochons, the most common form of gem cutting.
Cabochons are cut with a highly polished rounded or convex top, no faceting,and a flat or slightly domed base. This cut is used for softer stones to safeguard them from scratching. It is also the main cut for opals, turquoise,onyx, moonstone and star sapphire. Cabochons are not actually cut but shaped and polished. they are much easier to produce than faceted stones witch have many angles. They can be produced in any shape but oval is the most used.

This cut is used for star saphires and tiger’s eye stones to get the most of the design and brilliance.

The faceted cut can be various shapes, where as the cabochon has special limits.
Facet is the cut but not the shape.  It is actually the shaping of many cuts to show the stone at it’s best color and shine.

All natural stones including the rocks you might find along the edge of the road, have prisms or  points of light that enhance their color. ( You might want to study an old rock just for the fun of it.) Faceting was created to take advantage of that fact.

There are simple faceted cuts such as these step cornered aquamarine gems from the Smithsonian gem gallery or the many faceted cuts shown here in this round brilliant cut.

Step Cut Gemstones

Step Cut Gemstones

Round Brilliant Cut

Round Brilliant Cut

This started in the 13th and 14th centuries. At a time when stone cutting machines   were being invented to actually do the job. Before then, one would have to hire an artist to actually carve out a stone by hand, which could take many, many hours. Today there are very few lapidary carvers. One design that has been carved through the ages is the Cameo, which is usually cut from sea shells or agate.

 

The Marquise Cut
The marquise cut is a thin oblong shape with pointed ends and is named after Jean Antoinette Poisson, the Marquise de Pompadour……….. It is said French King, Louis the IV, asked his jewelers to create a cut to capture his mistress’ smile

Madame Pompadour

Madame Pompadour

… For that interesting story go here..http://www.ajsgem.com/articles/history-marquise-cut.html

A marquise has 57 facets.

 

Marquise Cut

Marquise Cut

The Princess Cut
Then there is the Princess cut which is a square version of the round brilliant. It has 76 facets.
With modern computers Lapidarists are creating more and more advanced designs for faceted gemstones.
For a more complete picture go to http://www.e-jewel.co.il/en/gemstonesshapes.aspx?PageID=259   Very interesting.

Hope Diamond, most expensive princess cut valued at two million dollars!

Hope Diamond, most expensive princess cut valued at two million dollars!

 

Now with all the modern computer technology, the Lapidarist can create original cuts never before  seen.  The Lapidarist artist would start with the anatomy of the gemstone, observing the natural prisms in each piece, just as the stone carver would, then proceed to work his magic.

  Note:     If you would like to learn more about the “Hope” diamond check out my blog post  under diamonds  “Famous Diamonds”  It has a fascinating history.   It even has a curse!

 

 

Until next time,

Enjoy your gemstones.

Erma

 

Looking for a gift or a wonderful piece of jewelry for yourself, this company goes above and beyond for their customers.  A family company dealing in gemstone jewelry, created by their own artisans.   Excellent prices as well.

Just click the link below:
We are always adding something new at JeGem.com. Checkout our newest pieces!

For all you jewelry crafts people: Love gemstones? Make jewelry? Click Here.

Resources:  Wikipedia, Gemselect, Gem society, as well as many others  from around the world.

 

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Twenty-three years after the celebrated Jewels of the Duchess of Windsor auction in 1987, Sotheby's is pleased to be offering twenty pieces formerly in the Collection of the Duchess of Windsor. Join Sotheby's David Bennett and historian Hugo Vickers as they recall the Duchess' iconic sense of style, the Duke's unwavering devotion to her, and how these influences are reflected in the key lots in the forthcoming sale in London on the 30 November.

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What began as a purely personal artistic pursuit has quickly developed into a lucrative business — a business that fosters both Ellen's gift for producing beautiful jewelry with naturally-occurring gemstones and her ongoing desire to positively influence another's life through the sharing of that gift.Deity Jewels has the blatant edginess to be "now", yet draws upon everything from classic vintage style to Native American weaving. Using semi-precious stones, metals and vintage charms that are either macraméd or braided onto fine silk cord, Ellen draws inspiration from nature in her creation of handcrafted pieces that are each tied to the spirit of self-discovery.

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For Bookings: http://www.asiatravel.com/For More Video: http://book.asiatravel.com/video-travel_destinations.aspxA gemstone or gem (also called a precious or semi-precious stone) is a piece of attractive mineral, which—when cut and polished—is used to make jewelry or other adornments.[1] However certain rocks, (such as lapis-lazuli) and organic materials (such as amber or jet) are not minerals, but are still used for jewelry, and are therefore often considered to be gemstones as well. Most gemstones are hard, but some soft minerals are used in jewelry because of their lustre or other physical properties that have aesthetic value. Rarity is another characteristic that lends value to a gemstone. Apart from jewelry, from earliest antiquity until the 19th century engraved gems and hardstone carvings such as cups were major luxury art forms; the carvings of Carl Fabergé were the last significant works in this traditionThe traditional classification in the West, which goes back to the Ancient Greeks, begins with a distinction between precious and semi-precious stones; similar distinctions are made in other cultures. The precious stones are diamond, ruby, emerald and sapphire, with all other gemstones being semi-precious.[2] This distinction is unscientific and reflects the rarity of the respective stones in ancient times, as well as their quality – all are translucent with fine color in their purest forms, except for the colorless diamond, and very hard,[3] with hardnesses of 8-10 on the Mohs scale. Other stones are classified by their color, translucency and hardness. The traditional distinction does not necessarily reflect modern values, for example, while garnets are relatively inexpensive, a green garnet called Tsavorite, can be far more valuable than an mid-quality emerald.[4] Another unscientific term for semi-precious gemstones used in art history and archaeology is hardstone.In modern times gemstones are identified by gemologists, who describe gems and their characteristics using technical terminology specific to the field of gemology. The first characteristic a gemologist uses to identify a gemstone is its chemical composition. For example, diamonds are made of carbon (C) and rubies of aluminium oxide (Al2O3). Next, many gems are crystals which are classified by their crystal system such as cubic or trigonal or monoclinic. Another term used is habit, the form the gem is usually found in. For example diamonds, which have a cubic crystal system, are often found as octahedrons.Gemstones are classified into different groups, species, and varieties. For example, ruby is the red variety of the species corundum, while any other color of corundum is considered sapphire. Emerald (green), aquamarine (blue), bixbite (red), goshenite (colorless), heliodor (yellow), and morganite (pink) are all varieties of the mineral species beryl.Gems are characterized in terms of refractive index, dispersion, specific gravity, hardness, cleavage, fracture, and luster. They may exhibit pleochroism or double refraction. They may have luminescence and a distinctive absorption spectrum.Material or flaws within a stone may be present as inclusions.Color is the most obvious and attractive feature of gemstones. The color of any material is due to the nature of light itself. Daylight, often called white light, is actually a mixture of different colors of light. When light passes through a material, some of the light may be absorbed, while the rest passes through. The part that is not absorbed reaches the eye as white light minus the absorbed colors. A ruby appears red because it absorbs all the other colors of white light – blue, yellow, green, etc. – except red.The same material can exhibit different colors. For example ruby and sapphire have the same chemical composition (both are corundum) but exhibit different colors. Even the same gemstone can occur in many different colors: sapphires show different shades of blue and pink and "fancy sapphires" exhibit a whole range of other colors from yellow to orange-pink, the latter called "Padparadscha sapphire".This difference in color is based on the atomic structure of the stone. Although the different stones formally have the same chemical composition, they are not exactly the same. Every now and then an atom is replaced by a completely different atom (and this could be as few as one in a million atoms). These so called impurities are sufficient to absorb certain colors and leave the other colors unaffected.As an example: beryl, which is colorless in its pure mineral form, becomes emerald with chromium impurities. If you add manganese instead of chromium, beryl becomes pink morganite. With iron, it becomes aquamarine.Some gemstone treatments make use of the fact that these impurities can be "manipulated", thus changing the color of the gem.Info Taken from Wikipedia.comCredits to wikipedia.comhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gem_stone

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For Bookings: http://www.asiatravel.com/For More Video: http://book.asiatravel.com/video-travel_destinations.aspxA gemstone or gem (also called a precious or semi-precious stone) is a piece of attractive mineral, which—when cut and polished—is used to make jewelry or other adornments.[1] However certain rocks, (such as lapis-lazuli) and organic materials (such as amber or jet) are not minerals, but are still used for jewelry, and are therefore often considered to be gemstones as well. Most gemstones are hard, but some soft minerals are used in jewelry because of their lustre or other physical properties that have aesthetic value. Rarity is another characteristic that lends value to a gemstone. Apart from jewelry, from earliest antiquity until the 19th century engraved gems and hardstone carvings such as cups were major luxury art forms; the carvings of Carl Fabergé were the last significant works in this traditionThe traditional classification in the West, which goes back to the Ancient Greeks, begins with a distinction between precious and semi-precious stones; similar distinctions are made in other cultures. The precious stones are diamond, ruby, emerald and sapphire, with all other gemstones being semi-precious.[2] This distinction is unscientific and reflects the rarity of the respective stones in ancient times, as well as their quality – all are translucent with fine color in their purest forms, except for the colorless diamond, and very hard,[3] with hardnesses of 8-10 on the Mohs scale. Other stones are classified by their color, translucency and hardness. The traditional distinction does not necessarily reflect modern values, for example, while garnets are relatively inexpensive, a green garnet called Tsavorite, can be far more valuable than an mid-quality emerald.[4] Another unscientific term for semi-precious gemstones used in art history and archaeology is hardstone.In modern times gemstones are identified by gemologists, who describe gems and their characteristics using technical terminology specific to the field of gemology. The first characteristic a gemologist uses to identify a gemstone is its chemical composition. For example, diamonds are made of carbon (C) and rubies of aluminium oxide (Al2O3). Next, many gems are crystals which are classified by their crystal system such as cubic or trigonal or monoclinic. Another term used is habit, the form the gem is usually found in. For example diamonds, which have a cubic crystal system, are often found as octahedrons.Gemstones are classified into different groups, species, and varieties. For example, ruby is the red variety of the species corundum, while any other color of corundum is considered sapphire. Emerald (green), aquamarine (blue), bixbite (red), goshenite (colorless), heliodor (yellow), and morganite (pink) are all varieties of the mineral species beryl.Gems are characterized in terms of refractive index, dispersion, specific gravity, hardness, cleavage, fracture, and luster. They may exhibit pleochroism or double refraction. They may have luminescence and a distinctive absorption spectrum.Material or flaws within a stone may be present as inclusions.Color is the most obvious and attractive feature of gemstones. The color of any material is due to the nature of light itself. Daylight, often called white light, is actually a mixture of different colors of light. When light passes through a material, some of the light may be absorbed, while the rest passes through. The part that is not absorbed reaches the eye as white light minus the absorbed colors. A ruby appears red because it absorbs all the other colors of white light – blue, yellow, green, etc. – except red.The same material can exhibit different colors. For example ruby and sapphire have the same chemical composition (both are corundum) but exhibit different colors. Even the same gemstone can occur in many different colors: sapphires show different shades of blue and pink and "fancy sapphires" exhibit a whole range of other colors from yellow to orange-pink, the latter called "Padparadscha sapphire".This difference in color is based on the atomic structure of the stone. Although the different stones formally have the same chemical composition, they are not exactly the same. Every now and then an atom is replaced by a completely different atom (and this could be as few as one in a million atoms). These so called impurities are sufficient to absorb certain colors and leave the other colors unaffected.As an example: beryl, which is colorless in its pure mineral form, becomes emerald with chromium impurities. If you add manganese instead of chromium, beryl becomes pink morganite. With iron, it becomes aquamarine.Some gemstone treatments make use of the fact that these impurities can be "manipulated", thus changing the color of the gem.Info Taken from Wikipedia.comCredits to wikipedia.comhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gem_stone

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Twenty-three years after the celebrated Jewels of the Duchess of Windsor auction in 1987, Sotheby's is pleased to be offering twenty pieces formerly in the Collection of the Duchess of Windsor. Join Sotheby's David Bennett and historian Hugo Vickers as they recall the Duchess' iconic sense of style, the Duke's unwavering devotion to her, and how these influences are reflected in the key lots in the forthcoming sale in London on the 30 November.

Leave a reply


Twenty-three years after the celebrated Jewels of the Duchess of Windsor auction in 1987, Sotheby's is pleased to be offering twenty pieces formerly in the Collection of the Duchess of Windsor. Join Sotheby's David Bennett and historian Hugo Vickers as they recall the Duchess' iconic sense of style, the Duke's unwavering devotion to her, and how these influences are reflected in the key lots in the forthcoming sale in London on the 30 November.

Leave a reply


Twenty-three years after the celebrated Jewels of the Duchess of Windsor auction in 1987, Sotheby's is pleased to be offering twenty pieces formerly in the Collection of the Duchess of Windsor. Join Sotheby's David Bennett and historian Hugo Vickers as they recall the Duchess' iconic sense of style, the Duke's unwavering devotion to her, and how these influences are reflected in the key lots in the forthcoming sale in London on the 30 November.

Leave a reply


Twenty-three years after the celebrated Jewels of the Duchess of Windsor auction in 1987, Sotheby's is pleased to be offering twenty pieces formerly in the Collection of the Duchess of Windsor. Join Sotheby's David Bennett and historian Hugo Vickers as they recall the Duchess' iconic sense of style, the Duke's unwavering devotion to her, and how these influences are reflected in the key lots in the forthcoming sale in London on the 30 November.

Leave a reply


Twenty-three years after the celebrated Jewels of the Duchess of Windsor auction in 1987, Sotheby's is pleased to be offering twenty pieces formerly in the Collection of the Duchess of Windsor. Join Sotheby's David Bennett and historian Hugo Vickers as they recall the Duchess' iconic sense of style, the Duke's unwavering devotion to her, and how these influences are reflected in the key lots in the forthcoming sale in London on the 30 November.

Leave a reply